"Polyols", "nutritive sweeteners", "sugar alcohols" and "bulk sweeteners".
Sugar replacers are carbohydrates but they are not sugars. Sugar replacers currently approved for use in the US are:
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Generally do not promote tooth decay (dental caries)
- Energy values range from 1.6 to 3.0 calories per gram, compared to 3.8 to 4.0 calories per gram for most carbohydrates, including sugar.
- Commonly have a cooling effect on the tongue.
- Are slowly and incompletely absorbed from the intestine into the blood.
- Cause only a small rise in blood glucose and insulin levels compared with sugars and other carbohydrates.
- Are generally metabolized by biochemical mechanisms that do not depend on insulin.
- Do not help restore blood glucose levels due to hypoglycemia.
- Excess consumption may have a laxative effect for some people.
Isomalt — a white, crystalline substance made from and resembling sucrose in appearance. Isomalt does not have the cooling effect of some other sugar replacers. (See Sugar Replacers.)
Lactitol — see Sugar Replacers
Maltitol — see Sugar Replacers
Mannitol — see Sugar Replacers
Sorbitol — a widely used sugar replacer, sorbitol is technically a polyhydroxy alcohol (polyol or sugar alcohol) derived from dextrose. It is used as a sweetener in sugarless chewing gums, confections, medicines and other products, plus it possesses humectant and other functional properties. It is about 60% to 70% as sweet as table sugar. (See Sugar Replacers.)
Sugaree® — see D-tagatose ™Trademark of Biospherics, Inc.
Xylitol — similar to, but sweeter than, sorbitol. (See Sugar Replacers.)