FAQ and Resources2019-02-06T20:50:40-06:00

FAQ and Resources

Sweetener Facts

What is “sugar”?2018-11-26T22:04:00-06:00

Common, refined, white granulated sugar is a nearly pure carbohydrate* that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is a major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide into stored food energy, and oxygen. Sugar occurs in greatest quantities in sugar cane and sugar beets.

Chemically sugar is the disaccharide “sucrose” that results from the biochemical bonding of the naturally-occurring monosaccharide molecules “fructose” (also called “levulose” or “fruit sugar”) and dextrose (also called “glucose” or “grape sugar”). This bond is relatively strong, but it is commonly broken by heat, acids, and the enzyme “invertase,” present in human saliva and digestive tracts. The process of splitting sucrose into its two components —fructose and dextrose — is alternatively called “inversion” and “hydrolysis.”


Sugar is a carbohydrate, a substance composed of only carbon (“carb-“), oxygen (“-o-“), and hydrogen (“-hydrate.”). Sucrose, fructose, dextrose, lactose (milk sugar) and other ” -oses” are members of this chemical class. When tens or hundreds of thousands of dextrose monosaccharides are chemically linked (polymerized), the resulting compounds are starch and cellulose.

All carbohydrates — sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch and so-called “complex carbohydrates”— contain the same caloric content: about 4 calories per gram. Neither nature nor human biochemical pathways distinguish calorically between refined table sugar and the sucrose in, say, an orange. The sucrose present in a bowl of table sugar is identical, chemically and metabolically, to the sucrose found in fruits and vegetables.

Cane vs. Beet Sugar: is there a difference?2018-11-26T22:06:31-06:00
There is no difference between the sugar produced from sugar cane or sugar beets. Sugar cane is a giant grass that thrives in a warm, moist climate, storing sugar in its stalk. The sugar beet grows best in a temperate climate, and stores its sugar in its yellow-to-white root. Sugar from either source is produced by nature in the same fashion as all green plants produce sugar — as a means of storing the sun’s energy.
How is white sugar obtained from the sugar cane plant?2018-11-26T22:05:50-06:00

The cane, which contains 10-15% sucrose, is ground to extract the juice, which in turn is boiled until the syrup thickens and crystallizes. The crystals are spun in a centrifuge to produce raw sugar. At a refinery, the raw sugar is washed and filtered to remove impurities and colors, and crystallized, dried and packaged.

How is white sugar obtained from the sugar beet plant?2018-11-26T22:06:25-06:00

The beets, which contain 12-18% sucrose, are washed, sliced and soaked in hot water to remove the juice. The sugar-laden juice is purified, filtered, concentrated and dried in a series of steps similar to sugar cane processing.

What nutrients are present in sugar?2018-11-26T22:07:08-06:00

White sugar is a pure carbohydrate (at least 99%) and contains trace amounts of sodium, potassium, and iron. Brown sugars contain higher amounts of these minerals, as well as calcium and phosphorus.

How many calories does sugar possess?2018-12-05T16:40:18-06:00

Like all carbohydrates, sugar contains about 4 calories of food energy per gram. A teaspoon of granulated or brown sugar contains 15 calories, a typical restaurant packet about 10 calories. Powdered sugar contains about 110 calories per quarter-cup.

Why is sugar found in many processed foods?2018-12-05T16:33:38-06:00

Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less-obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy-making and the like.

Flavor Enhancement — Sugar “potentiates,” blends and balances flavor components, much like a seasoning. For example, a pinch of sugar added to corn, carrots and peas produces a better-tasting product. In most tomato based products, such as barbecue, spaghetti, and chili sauces, sugar softens the acidity of the tomatoes and blends the flavors.

Solubility — Sugar is readily soluble in water. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly beverages and confectionery. Sugar’s capacity to produce a supersaturated solution and then crystallize when cooled is the basis for rock candies. The wonderful variety of confectionery draws from the candy maker’s ability to vary sugar concentration, along with temperature and agitation, to produce different crystal sizes and textures.

Boiling Point Rise, Freezing Point Depression — In solution, sugar has the effect of lowering the freezing point and raising the boiling point of that solution. These are important properties in preparing frozen desserts and candy, respectively. In ice cream, for example, sugar’s ability to depress the freezing point slows the freezing process, promoting a smooth, creamy consistency. In shortening-based cakes, sugar raises, delays and controls the temperature at which the batter goes from fluid to solid, which allows the leavening agent to produce the maximum amount of carbon dioxide. The gas is held inside the air cells of the structure, resulting in a fine, uniformly- grained cake with a soft, smooth crumb texture.

Hydrolysis (inversion) — In food processing, hydrolysis decreases the tendency of sugar to crystallize in thick syrups or jellies.

Caramelization (thermal decomposition) — When sugar is heated to a sufficiently high temperature, it decomposes or “caramelizes.” Its color changes first to yellow, then to brown, and it develops a distinctive and appealing flavor and aroma. The melted substance is known as caramel. The brown color of toasted bread is the result of caramelization.

Browning (Maillard reactions) — Color is also produced in cooking when sugars and proteins interact in complex ways. This is known as the browning (Maillard) reaction, important in candy making, baking and other processes.

Yeast Fermentation — Sugar is consumed by yeast cells in a thoroughly natural process called “fermentation.” Carbon dioxide gas is released, and alcohol is produced, reactions vital to bread rising and baking and alcoholic beverage production.

Bodying/Bulking Agent — Sugar imparts satisfying texture, body, mouthfeel and bulk to many processed foods, such as ice cream, baked goods, icings, beverages and candy.

Texture Modification — For example, as sugar is creamed with shortening in baked goods, the irregularities of the of the sugar crystals help create air pockets that contribute to a uniformly fine crumb structure. In gingersnaps and sugar cookies, the desirable surface cracking pattern is imparted when sugar crystallizes by rapid loss of moisture from the surface during baking.

Preservative — By binding water, sugar acts as a very effective, natural preservative. For example, the high sugar levels in jams, jellies and sauces make them more immune to the microorganism development common in thinner, high-moisture products like commercial applesauce. Sugar is the preferred sweetener in cereal coatings because of its ability to crystallize into a frosty surface forming a hard, continuous glaze. This protects the product from air and moisture, extending its shelf life.

Dispersant — In dry beverage, dessert and bakery mixes, sugar prevents lumping and clumping when the mix is hydrated.

Whipping Aid — In foam-type cakes, such as angel and sponge, sugar enables the creation of a light foam that serves as the basic structure of the cake.

Humectant — When the sucrose molecule is “inverted”, by the application of heat, acids or enzyme, the resulting fructose (especially) and dextrose contribute a moistening property, desirable in such foods as icings, fudge, cakes, marshmallows, soft cookies, and so forth.

Microwave Properties — Sugar has unique dielectric properties that enable it to produce desired surface browning and crisping. Sugar can shield lower food layers from heating, as in microwavable ice cream toppings. Sugar can function as a control agent to minimize uneven heating.

Where do sugar cane and beets grow?2018-11-26T22:10:17-06:00

Sugar cane grows in tropical and subtropical climates: Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Hawaii, India, Brazil, Cuba, Thailand. Sugar beets thrive in temperate climates: North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, Idaho, California, the former Soviet Union, Europe.

Does the US grow all the sugar it consumes?2018-11-26T22:11:01-06:00

No. USDA projects that this year, we will import the equivalent of about 5.65 billion pounds of white, refined sugar, most of it entering the US in the form of cane “raws” that require further refining. Very little white granulated sugar is imported.

What is “world” sugar?2018-11-26T22:11:57-06:00

Unrefined (raw) cane sugar traded at open, public auction on a commodity (futures) exchange is referred to as “world” sugar. Only a small fraction of all the sugar grown and produced is ever offered for sale at this auction.

Fluctuating world sugar prices, for delivery in various months, are reported daily in the Wall Street Journal and elsewhere as the lb11 Caribbean contract. As with any commodity, traded raw sugar prices reflect supply and demand, weather conditions, political unrest, speculative greed, and a host of other factors common to all futures trading.

Why does US sugar cost more than #11 sugar?2018-11-26T22:13:52-06:00

There is a difference, and usually little relationship, between the #11 world futures price, and US sugar prices, for several reasons. First, by definition the #11 contract trades in “raw” cane (never beet) sugar, not refined, white granulated sugar. Second, the #11 price assumes the “raws” are landed in the Caribbean, in bulk, and not packaged at a useful domestic location. Third, the raw price does not reflect import duties, fees and tariffs most countries, including the US, impose upon imported sugar.

The price difference between raws on the World #11 market, and the US #14 market, is typically 9-12 cents a pound, and is largely a measure of import duties and fees imposed on imported raws. These duties are, in turn, a reflection of “support” prices — minimum returns American sugar farmers receive for their crops.

Are American sugar farmers subsidized?2018-11-26T22:16:25-06:00

No. They are guaranteed a minimum price for their crops, and import duties protect them from being driven out of business by low-priced, foreign sugar. But by law, the Federal sugar program that mandates minimum returns also requires that the program not penalize American taxpayers even one dollar. Systems which protect domestic sugar producers have been in effect, in one form or another, for decades, both in the US and elsewhere.

Does protecting US sugar producers drive up the price?2018-11-26T22:15:08-06:00

Yes, but compared to what? Nearly every country in the world protects, subsidizes and micromanages the details and economics of sugar commerce within their borders, so the US situation is just one among many. There are only a handful of countries in the world that allow true, unregulated supply-and-demand sugar capitalism. And in spite of US “protectionism,” Americans pay less for sugar than most industrialized countries, and in a recent study, only Australia and Canada had lower average prices.

Is sugar a government subsidized commodity?2018-11-26T22:16:42-06:00

Yes, and for good, if not universally accepted reasons. Maintenance and protection of a domestic sugar industry have long been viewed as an important, strategic goal by many countries, largely because sugar is an indispensable part of everyday life.

History has shown that when sugar trade is left entirely to free-market forces, periods of wild price fluctuations and uncertain supply inevitably occur. To ensure stability, various forms of “protectionism” and market control have evolved in most countries. Such mechanisms are as imperfect as the people who, with their competing agendas, propose and inevitably compromise over solutions.

The US has long protected its sugar industry for compelling reasons. It is an important industry that provides jobs and a necessary, pleasurable product few of us care to, or could, live without. The very survival of much of the enormous American food industry depends upon a steady, affordable supply of quality sugar for sweetness and a host of functional properties for which there is no substitute.

The US sugar industry is almost as important to our economic vitality as is a steady supply of affordable energy. Subjecting sugar to the unpredictable forces of global laissez-faire capitalism would likely lead to “dumping” by countries whose own sugar industries are much more protected than is ours. This would drive some, if not all, domestic growers and refiners out of business. The resulting dependence on foreign sources for our sugar could bring shortages more severe than caused by World War II’s rationing, with high prices to match.

Sweetener Glossary

Sanding2018-11-26T23:55:59-06:00

Very pure, clear, large-grained sugar:

  • Adds “sparkle” when sprinkled on candies (gum/jelly goods), cookies, pies, turnovers.
  • In boiled syrups and boiled-type icings, it dissolves uniformly, with minimal foaming or discoloring.
Superfine2018-11-26T23:56:42-06:00

See Bakers Special 

Table2018-11-26T23:57:19-06:00

See Granulated 

Tableting2018-11-27T00:02:02-06:00

A directly compressible, granulated sugar or agglomerated powder, used to make tablets and flakes. It consists of mostly sucrose, with a small amount of maltodextrin or invert sugar. Tableting sugar is used by pharmaceutical makers as an excipient, and by confectioners.

Turbinado2018-11-26T23:58:47-06:00

A semi-refined, off-color sugar containing a higher percentage of sucrose than raw sugar, but less than refined sugar.

Unigran®2018-11-26T23:59:17-06:00

Pure, uniform, larger-grained sugar containing few “fines.” Primarily for use in hot drink dispensing machines. ®Trademark of California and Hawaiian Sugar Co.

Brown 2018-11-27T00:40:08-06:00

Brown (soft) sugar is the commingling of fine grain white sugar and a film of molasses (sometimes called cane sugar syrup). As more and/or darker molasses is present relative to sugar, the grade of brown sugar darkens from light, to medium, to dark, with an accompanying deepening of the caramel and butterscotch flavors so highly prized in the product. Cane brown sugars are produced directly from the dark syrups obtained during the refining process, whereas beet brown sugar is produced by coating white granulated sugar with cane molasses. Light (golden) and dark brown sugars are the two major types commercially available, as well as in-between grades.

Golden C® (Light) Brown Sugar
Yellow D® (Dark) Brown Sugar
®Trademarks of California and Hawaiian Sugar Co.

USP2018-11-27T00:00:29-06:00

Sugar that meets the quality and purity standards and specifications of the United States Pharmacopoeia (an authoritative book containing a list and description of drugs and medicinal products together with the standards established under law for their production, dispensation and use.) NF refers to National Formulary, a similar book.

Brownulated2018-11-27T00:40:21-06:00

Brownulated or Free Flowing brown sugar is a lower moisture version of ordinary brown. Free flowing brown sugar handles with less clumping and caking — ideal for automated weighing and scaling operations. ®Trademark of Domino Sugar Co.

Molasses2018-11-27T00:41:09-06:00

Molasses is the concentrated, clarified extract of sugar cane. It is the end product of sugar refining. Forty to sixty percent of molasses is sucrose and invert sugars, and the remainder inorganic nonsugars. Open Kettle Molasses is made by boiling cane juice until a large part of the water is evaporated. It is sometimes called unsulfured molasses. Centrifugal molasses results when part or all of the commercially crystallizable sugar is recovered from the concentrated cane juice, often in a series of steps where successive crystallization “strikes” result in molasses with deepening color and stronger flavor. The resulting types are known as first (light and sweet), second (dark, less sweet) and final (very dark, thick and bitter) molasses. The best grades, first and second, are used for table syrups, gingerbread and so forth. Final, or blackstrap molasses is considered inedible by some, but is used in yeast breads and baked beans by others. Molasses from sugar beets is not intended for human consumption.

Savannah Gold® 2018-11-27T00:04:32-06:00

A free-flowing brown sugar. ® Savannah Sugars

Invert Sugar2018-11-27T00:42:14-06:00

Invert Sugar is the result of inversion (hydrolysis) of sucrose, that is, the splitting of sucrose molecules into their dextrose and fructose components. The degree of inversion can range from slight to great, depending upon the amount of heat, acid or enzyme applied. “Medium Invert” means half of the sucrose molecules present have been split into their fructose/dextrose components, and the remaining half are undisturbed sucrose molecules. “Total Invert” means all of the sucrose molecules have been split into their fructose and dextrose components, with consequently no sucrose remaining. Both medium and total invert syrups are commercially available.

Liquid Sucrose2018-11-27T00:42:01-06:00

Refers to a solution made by dissolving sugar in warm-to-hot water — but not so hot as to cause any inversion. It is sold to dairies and food processors in bulk at 67.5 percent sugar solids, a concentration approximately equal to dissolving 1.8 lb. sugar in one pound of water. However, liquid sugar solutions of higher concentrations are routinely made in batch amounts by confectioners. For example, when one pound of water is heated to 200° F (93.3° C), about 4 2/3 lb. of sugar will dissolve in it, resulting in a solution that is 82 percent sugar and 18 percent water. When such a solution is cooled to, say, 69° F, an unstable but highly useful situation called a supersaturated solution is created, and is the basis for fondants, fudge and similar creamy confections. The precise manner in which a supersaturated solution is cooled and agitated or beaten by the candy maker is the hallmark of his or her art.

Low Color Liquid Sucrose2018-11-27T00:40:46-06:00

The same batch production as our regular liquid sugar except we clarify this product further with our new ultra-filtration liquid system. This eliminates nearly all the color that comes from the sugar source and produces a super clean and crystal clear liquid sugar product. This product is used primarily in the beverage industry for super clear beverage products and specific pharmaceutical applications.

Cerelose®2018-11-27T00:29:40-06:00

See Dextrose® Trademark of Corn Products Co.

Corn Syrup2018-11-27T00:33:10-06:00

is not a sucrose product at all, but rather a purified, concentrated solution obtained from the hydrolysis of corn starch. There are many corn syrups, of varying viscosity and sweetness, although none is as sweet as a sugar solution of equal solids. Corn syrups perform many roles in foods and beverages: imparting thickness and mouthfeel, controlling ice crystallization in frozen desserts, acting as a bulking agent, and so forth.

Corn syrups are classified according to their dextrose equivalents (D.E.), a rough measure of sweetness; and Baume’, a measure of thickness or solids. The most common corn syrup in commercial use is 42 DE, 43 Baume’, and called “regular” confectioners corn syrup.

Clintose®2018-11-27T00:28:48-06:00

See Dextrose® Trademark of Archer Daniels Midland Co.

Corn Syrup Solids2018-11-27T00:33:49-06:00

Dried corn syrup, used by food processors who need the functional characteristics of liquid corn syrup in a dry form. Available in a variety of forms.

Fructose2018-11-27T00:34:45-06:00

A nonsucrose “sugar” which occurs naturally in most plants and fruits, and in honey. It is produced commercially from corn, and is available in crystal and powdered forms. It is a close relative of the liquid sweetener, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Fructose is the sweetest of all natural sugars, up to 1.7 times as sweet as sucrose. Also called “levulose” and “fruit sugar.” It is used as a sweetener, especially in dietetic foods, because gram-for-gram, it imparts more sweetness than any other natural sweetener. Fructose also has valuable humectant properties.

Dextrose2018-11-27T00:35:09-06:00

A nonsucrose “sugar” which occurs naturally in many plants, fruits and in honey. In animals, dextrose (also called “glucose” and “grape sugar”) is a vital constituent of the blood, and is directly metabolized for immediate energy needs. Dextrose is used in food and beverages as a sweetener (it’s about 3/4 as sweet as sucrose), a browning agent, a humectant, and a fermentation substrate. It is available in liquid (bulk only) and dry forms.

High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)2018-11-27T00:36:34-06:00

An enzymatically modified, crystal clear corn syrup with sweetness (and calories) approximately equal to that of a sugar solution. Although HFCS is not a sucrose product, it performs many of the same functions as sugar, chiefly the “clean” sweetening of beverages, pickles, ketchup, dairy products, baked goods, and a host of food and liquid products. (Nearly every full-calorie soft drink produced in the U.S. is sweetened with HFCS). HFCS is usually sold at a price considerably below sugar, hence its popularity.

Maltodextrins2018-11-27T00:37:11-06:00

Similar to, but generally less sweet than, corn syrup solids, commonly used as a bulking agent.

Staleydex®2018-11-27T00:37:54-06:00

See Dextrose ®Trademark of A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co.

Intense Sweeteners2018-11-27T23:53:11-06:00

Intense sweeteners possess these characteristics (and differ from Sugar Replacers):

  • Are nonnutritive (noncaloric)
  • Provide virtually no bulk, only sweetness
  • Are 150 to 500 times as sweet as sugar
  • Are mostly artificial/synthetic
Aspartame2018-11-28T00:13:56-06:00

An artificial, calorie-free sweetener made by joining two naturally-occurring amino acids (aspartic acid and phenylalanine). Aspartame is about 200 times as sweet as sucrose and is marketed under various trade names – the best known of which is NutraSweet.

® Trademark of Nutrasweet Co.

NutraSweet®2018-11-28T00:14:49-06:00

See Aspartame.

® Trademark of The NutraSweet Co.

Acesulfame-K2018-11-27T23:58:04-06:00

An artificial, calorie-free sweetener, about 150 times as sweet as sugar, marketed under the “Sunette,” “Swiss Sweet” and “Sweet One” brands.

Equal®2018-11-28T00:15:15-06:00

A consumer version of NutraSweet-brand aspartame. Equal consists of aspartame, with a small amount of dextrose added to make it usable as a table sweetener.

® Trademark of the Nutrasweet Co.

Cyclamate2018-11-27T23:58:30-06:00

An artificial sweetener, 30 times as sweet as sugar, long banned in the US, but allowed in Canada and some other countries.

Saccharin2018-11-28T00:00:05-06:00

A white, crystalline artificial sweetener about 300 to 500 times as sweet as sugar: as the oldest of nonnutritive sweeteners, its use is allowed in the US but banned in some countries.

Splenda®2018-11-28T00:16:13-06:00

See Sucralose.

® Trademark of Johnson & Johnson McNeil Specialty Products and Tate & Lyle PLC.

Stevia2018-11-28T00:03:27-06:00

A natural, noncaloric plant extract 200 to 300 times as sweet as sugar, possessing a licorice-like flavor. In the US, FDA prohibits the use of stevia as a sweetener or food additive but allows it to be sold as a dietary supplement.

Sunette®2018-11-28T00:07:31-06:00

See Acesulfame-K.

® Trademark of Hoechst Celanese.

Sucralose2018-11-28T00:05:27-06:00

A white, crystalline powder made from sugar, and about 600 times sweeter than sugar. Marketed under the name “Splenda ®; Presently available in several countries, sucralose received FDA approval in 1998.

Sweet One®2018-11-28T00:08:28-06:00

See Acesulfame-K.

® Trademark of Stadt Corp.

Swiss Sweet®2018-11-28T00:12:54-06:00

See Acesulfame-K.

® Trademark of Estee Corp.

Sugar Replacers2018-11-28T00:20:29-06:00

In bulk and volume, providing sweeteners usually less sweet than, and different-tasting from sugar, commonly used on a one-for-one replacement basis for sugar in recipes. Sugar replacers have various names:

“Polyols”, “nutritive sweeteners”, “sugar alcohols” and “bulk sweeteners”.
Sugar replacers are carbohydrates, but they are not sugars. Sugar replacers currently approved for use in the US are:

  • Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
  • Lactitol
  • MaltitoI
  • Isomalt
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol
  • Mannitol

Sugar Replacers exhibit these characteristics:

  • Generally, do not promote tooth decay (dental caries)
  • Energy values range from 1.6 to 3.0 calories per gram, compared to 3.8 to 4.0 calories per gram for most carbohydrates, including sugar.
  • Commonly have a cooling effect on the tongue.
  • Are slowly and incompletely absorbed from the intestine into the blood.
  • Cause only a small rise in blood glucose and insulin levels compared with sugars and other carbohydrates.
  • Are generally metabolized by biochemical mechanisms that do not depend on insulin.
  • Do not help restore blood glucose levels due to hypoglycemia.
  • Excess consumption may have a laxative effect on some people.
D-tagatose2018-11-28T00:23:13-06:00

According to its manufacturer, “Sugaree” brand of D-tagatose is a natural, nonfattening sweetener, derived from whey, that looks, feels, tastes and performs like table sugar. It is not approved for use in the US.

Isomalt2018-11-28T00:27:54-06:00

A white, crystalline substance made from and resembling sucrose in appearance. Isomalt does not have the cooling effect of some other sugar replacers.

See Sugar Replacers. 

Lactitol2018-11-28T00:29:21-06:00

See Sugar Replacers. 

Maltitol2018-11-28T00:25:46-06:00

See Sugar Replacers. 

Sorbitol2018-11-28T00:26:29-06:00

A widely used sugar replacer, sorbitol is technically a polyhydroxy alcohol (polyol or sugar alcohol) derived from dextrose. It is used as a sweetener in sugarless chewing gums, confections, medicines and other products, plus it possesses humectant and other functional properties. It is about 60% to 70% as sweet as table sugar.

See Sugar Replacers. 

Mannitol2018-11-28T00:31:47-06:00

See Sugar Replacers. 

Sugaree®2018-11-28T00:27:53-06:00

See D-tagatose.

Trademark of Biospherics, Inc.

Xylitol2018-11-28T00:28:30-06:00

Similar to, but sweeter than, sorbitol.

See Sugar Replacers. 

Honey2018-11-28T00:32:27-06:00

A sweet, thick, supersaturated sugar solution manufactured by bees from floral nectar to feed their larvae and for subsistence in winter. Honey is composed of fructose, glucose, and water, in varying proportions; it also contains several enzymes and oils. The color and flavor depend on the age of the honey and on the source of the nectar.

Lactose2018-11-28T00:33:26-06:00

“Milk sugar” that occurs naturally in all mammalian milk, including human. Lactose is about 1/6 as sweet as sucrose.

Maltose2018-11-28T00:33:54-06:00

Naturally-occurring non- sucrose sugar found in many plants, principally sprouting cereal grains like barley. Maltose is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose (dextrose) molecules chemically linked. In the human digestive tract, natural enzymes split starches into, among other things, maltose. Maltose has a sweetness about 1/3 that of sucrose.

Maple Syrup2018-11-28T00:35:13-06:00

Composed mostly of sucrose, glucose, fructose and small amounts of vitamins and minerals, is simply the concentrated sap of 40+-year-old maple trees. This sap, which is only 2-3% sugars, is collected and concentrated, usually through boiling, until the sugar content reaches a critical 66%. It takes 40 gallons of sap — the annual output of four trees — to produce one gallon of syrup.

Baker’s Special2018-11-26T23:37:37-06:00

An extremely fine-grained sugar with several uses:

  • Imparts a delicate texture and high volume in cake products, by developing a uniform cell structure.
  • Retains moisture and improves the shelf life of cakes.
  • In dry mixes, disperses more evenly and with less stratification, than larger-grained white sugars.
  • Dissolves faster than EFG, especially in cold beverages like iced tea and bar drinks.
Bottler’s2018-11-26T23:38:55-06:00

Similar to EFG, and meets all standards of the National Soft Drink Association, with respect to:

  • Clarity, color, odor and taste
  • Ash and sediment content
  • Comparative absence of floc-forming substances
  • Microbiological activity
Coarse2018-11-26T23:41:27-06:00

Intermediate grain size sugar designed for easy handling and storage in bulk conveying operations.

Con AA & Con A2018-11-26T23:41:52-06:00

Extremely pure, extra-large grain sugars with the following attributes:

  • Exceptionally white, clear and brilliant
  • Very low ash, color, turbidity and metallic ion contents
  • Nearly 100% sucrose in purity (99.9+%)

Uses for Con AA & A include:

  • Boiled syrups, boiled-type icings
  • “Sparkle” topping similar to sanding sugar, but larger crystal size
  • Candies (especially mints) and fondants where clarity, whiteness, and brilliance are desirable
  • Crystallized syrups
  • Cordials and liqueurs where absolute water whiteness is desired.
  • Cotton candy
Demerara Sugar2018-11-26T23:46:04-06:00

Similar to Turbinado 

Compressible2018-11-26T23:44:11-06:00

See Tableting

Cordial Sugar2018-11-26T23:49:02-06:00

See Con AA

EFG2018-11-26T23:47:43-06:00

See Granulated

Drivert® 2018-11-26T23:47:07-06:00

The finest-grain of all powdered sugars used to produce fondants, icings, and frostings with no trace of grain or grittiness. ® C& H Sugar Co.

FG2018-11-26T23:49:55-06:00

See Granulated

Fondant & Icing2018-11-26T23:50:02-06:00

Very fine-grain grain sugar (particles 1/100th the size of regular powdered sugar) that easily mixes with water and produces smooth, creamy icings and frostings with high gloss and little or no grittiness. May contain small amounts of invert or maltodextrin.

Fruit Granulated2018-11-26T23:50:31-06:00

Similar to EFG, and meets all specifications of the National Canners Association for sugar.

Gelatin2018-11-26T23:51:18-06:00

See Gel Grain

Gel Grain 2018-11-26T23:51:56-06:00

Sugar of smaller, exceptionally uniform grain size (60 to 80 mesh), with few “fines.” Used in gelatins, cookie doughs, cake mixes, quick-dissolving hot and cold beverage mixes, and other dry mixes.

LCMT Sugar2018-11-26T23:53:05-06:00

See Con AA 

Granulated 2018-11-26T23:54:20-06:00

Table sugar, commonly called “Fine Granulated” (FG) and “Extra Fine Granulated” (EFG), depending on the refiner’s designation.

Liqueur Sugar2018-11-26T23:53:35-06:00

See Con AA 

Manufacturers2018-11-26T23:54:02-06:00

Intermediate-grain, agglomerate sugar; resists packing and clumping when dissolved. Usually available in bulk only, used by bakers, preservers, freezers, canners and syrup manufacturers.

Powdered2018-11-26T23:54:55-06:00

Finely-ground granulated sugar to which a small amount (3%) cornstarch has been added to prevent caking. The fineness to which the granulated sugar is ground determines the familiar “X” factor: 14X is finer than 12X, and so on down through 10X, 8X, 6X (the most commonly used) and 4X, the coarsest powdered sugar.

Raw Sugar2018-11-26T23:55:20-06:00

The semi-refined product of plantation mills processing sugar cane; sugar extracted from cane juice without any further refining in which each crystal is coated with a heavy film of low purity molasses.

Outside Resources